# Roman Numbers - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you imagine numbers at present, the first thing that pops in your head is the decimal system we use daily. This system, however, is not the single approach to depict numericals. There are multiple methods used by different cultures worldwide that utilize all kinds of characters. One of approach is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have been a way of writing numericals utilizing a mixture of letters from the Latin alphabet. It existed across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still educated in school, that is probably why you have come across this blog.

Today, we are going to walkthrough Roman numerals, definition, how they function, and how to convert Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's look at a quick look at the past of Roman numbers. Roman numbers were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were employed in many aspects of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Nowadays, its main use is primarily due to aesthetic reasons. You might have seen Roman numerals as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number approach consist of numericals employing a mixture of letters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are combined to make groups that depict numericals. Seven letters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then combine these numericals to depict any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numerals are established on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its individual parts. One more key distinction is that the decimal method is based on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numbers are based on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few hands-on examples of Roman numerals.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we look at the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman number is represented by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Therefore, we understand that this is the 4th to enter in the series using the characteristics we will discuss further ahead.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it comprises a V followed by an I. Thus, we will add a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, comprehending this Star Wars movie is the 6th to enter the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is important to understand the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this function easy, here is a chart with all Latin letters with assigned number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numbers to Regular Numbers

Considering we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that data to change numbers back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will transform these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Decimal Numericals

To transform Roman numbers to decimal numbers, we will utilize the additive and subtractive principles we talked about.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is lesser in value, then add the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is greater in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numbers to its left.

All you should do now is repeat this method unless you reach the end of the Roman number group.

Let's see how you can convert Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Consider the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Because 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and the result is 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we add the two values and the result is 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Therefore, the Roman number LXXVI is equivalent to the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we sum the two values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have reached the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our result. So, the Roman number MCMIII is equal to the regular number 1903.

With this data and a little practice, you will transform Roman numerals to regular numbers like an expert!

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